Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Acid Rain The topic of this paper is acid deposition, also known as acid Rain. Acid rain is precipitation, as rain, snow or sleet containing relatively high concentration of acid forming chemicals. As the pollutants from coal, smoke, chemical manufacturing, and smelting, that have been released into the atmosphere and combine with water vapor, the harmful deposition is created (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/acid+rain). Acid rain affects many things greatly. Acid rain affects many different things and is very harmful to the environment. One aspect of the environment that is greatly affected by acid rain is soil. Acidic rain makes its way into the soil by rain falling off the branches and leaves to the soil below. Water runs through the soil on its way to different bodies of water. A process called buffering is used to neutralize acids using the base nutrients (including calcium and magnesium) found in soil (Tyson, 1992). This process helps soil resist the effects of acid rain. Thinner soils that have fewer nutrients are more vulnerable to the effects of acid rain. Thicker soils are more affective at buffering acid rain. Over many years soils that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the best at buffering out acid rain can become increasingly acidic. This leads to a decrease in the ability to support healthy plant life. Over time soils may become so acidic that aluminum dissolves and is carried by rain water into bodies of water. Aluminum that is dissolved is very toxic and harmful to all aquatic life. Areas of higher elevation, such as high mountain areas, are more sensitive to the effects of acid rain. The soils are thinner and therefore are unable to buffer acid rain as well as thicker soil at lower elevations (Tyson, 1992). At high ele... ...ns use in their homes, the fewer chemicals that power plants use the fewer that will have to be emitted in to the air. Today there are laws on how much pollution is allowed to be put out in the air these laws have made significant changes. Catalytic converters in cars help reduce emissions. There has been reduction in the amount of acid rain causing pollutant to the air by humans. Eastern Canada set a cap of 2.3 million tons of sulphur dioxide to be met by 1994 and maintained until 2000. In Canada several sulphur dioxide reduction targets for provinces to the east of Manitoba-Saskatchewan to meet this cap. Roughly halve of the sulphur dioxide emissions were intended to be cut by this reduction. Acid rain affects many things in our world greatly. Acid rain is precipitation that has been released into the atmosphere and is very harmful and can do lots of damage. Essay example -- Acid Rain The topic of this paper is acid deposition, also known as acid Rain. Acid rain is precipitation, as rain, snow or sleet containing relatively high concentration of acid forming chemicals. As the pollutants from coal, smoke, chemical manufacturing, and smelting, that have been released into the atmosphere and combine with water vapor, the harmful deposition is created (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/acid+rain). Acid rain affects many things greatly. Acid rain affects many different things and is very harmful to the environment. One aspect of the environment that is greatly affected by acid rain is soil. Acidic rain makes its way into the soil by rain falling off the branches and leaves to the soil below. Water runs through the soil on its way to different bodies of water. A process called buffering is used to neutralize acids using the base nutrients (including calcium and magnesium) found in soil (Tyson, 1992). This process helps soil resist the effects of acid rain. Thinner soils that have fewer nutrients are more vulnerable to the effects of acid rain. Thicker soils are more affective at buffering acid rain. Over many years soils that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the best at buffering out acid rain can become increasingly acidic. This leads to a decrease in the ability to support healthy plant life. Over time soils may become so acidic that aluminum dissolves and is carried by rain water into bodies of water. Aluminum that is dissolved is very toxic and harmful to all aquatic life. Areas of higher elevation, such as high mountain areas, are more sensitive to the effects of acid rain. The soils are thinner and therefore are unable to buffer acid rain as well as thicker soil at lower elevations (Tyson, 1992). At high ele... ...ns use in their homes, the fewer chemicals that power plants use the fewer that will have to be emitted in to the air. Today there are laws on how much pollution is allowed to be put out in the air these laws have made significant changes. Catalytic converters in cars help reduce emissions. There has been reduction in the amount of acid rain causing pollutant to the air by humans. Eastern Canada set a cap of 2.3 million tons of sulphur dioxide to be met by 1994 and maintained until 2000. In Canada several sulphur dioxide reduction targets for provinces to the east of Manitoba-Saskatchewan to meet this cap. Roughly halve of the sulphur dioxide emissions were intended to be cut by this reduction. Acid rain affects many things in our world greatly. Acid rain is precipitation that has been released into the atmosphere and is very harmful and can do lots of damage.
Monday, January 13, 2020
My employment in the field of education may be coincidental but is probably attributable to my quest for learning and advancing knowledge in all aspects of my life. Additionally, I believe in the notion that no matter what a businessmanÃ¢â¬â¢s product is, this person is definitely in the education business.To succeed, the individual must constantly educate his customers on the many advantages of doing business with him, train them on how to use the product efficiently as well as effectively and therefore make never-ending improvement in their lives. It is against this background that I would wish to apply for an admission to University of Colorado to pursue a Certificate in Leadership Studies.My decision to settle for this certificate program was mainly informed by several reasons. Firstly, a teacher is definitely a leader and the program would help me expand my knowledge in leadership skills. This knowledge, I believe, would be helpful in my Junior Reserve OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s Trainin g Corps (JROTC) classes.The certificate would complement the values of citizenship, service to my country, personal responsibility as well as accomplishments, the very virtues that the JROTC program wishes to instill into every American through teaching which is my career.Additionally, I believe in the process of continuous evaluation, improving on my weak areas and carrying on the desirable virtues for the sake of my country and humanity at large, which I in turn pass over to my students. With the dynamic nature of education, I take it as my responsibility to be abreast with the most current knowledge.Leadership Studies and other related courses such as Conflict Resolution Management are therefore becoming increasingly important, more so for those in social responsibilities. In this bid, the University of ColoradoÃ¢â¬â¢s Certificate Program would make me a better teacher by equipping me with more knowledge and leadership skills that are inclined towards my career as a teacher.Tho ugh I have a degree in Business Administration, I must say that the future looks bright although I have not reached the epic. I would wish to purse a Masters in Education after this certificate. This would career-wise place me in a better position and I would even be better equipped to serve humanity at a position which is much higher.In addition, it would ensure an increased remuneration and package that would transform both to my personal growth as well as that of my family. As such, a certificate in Leadership Studies would form a good foundation for a Masters as all are inclined towards the field of education and would also be part of my greater continuous improvement personal policy.My decision for a certificate in Leadership Studies at Colorado University was further informed by a critical analysis based on accruing costs and benefits. Apart from the great reputation that the University of Colorado holds in the world of Junior Reserve OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s Training Corps, I was loo king a local university that could offer me a Certificate that carries international recognition, and at a pocket friendly price.Whether on distance learning mode or otherwise, to me, Colorado university appeared as the most viable option, more so for a veteran like me.Moreover, I consider education as the asset that does not build dreams but also ensures their realization. It is the asset that that rekindles hope, as through it, a bright future is foreseen. Irrespective of age, education turns a weak person to an energetic one while confidence within an individual is built through educational accomplishments. Through education, one not only understands themselves but also discovers their potential, grabs opportunities and is therefore able to pursue success into its greatest heights.Ã As a conclusion, I wish to make a worthy contribution to my life and humanity at large, and only through education can I secure the chance to do so. It also bears noting that through this certificat e, I wish to open up my mind and expand my horizons in all aspects, and this remains my objective as I place my application for consideration into admission to Colorado University.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
In 1945, a California LULAC Council victoriously sued to merge the Orange County School System, which had been isolated in light of the fact that Mexican youngsters were inadequately dressed and mentally sub-par compared to white kids (Takaki, 378). In 1954, LULAC brought another historical case, Hernandez versus the State of Texas, to challenge the fact that a Mexican American had never been called to jury duty in Texas (Class Lecture, 11/30). The Supreme Court administered this as illegal. In the twentieth century, starting with the 1952 Hernandez v. Texas suit, the case started to turn gradually and unyieldingly (Ã¢â¬Å"A Class ApartÃ¢â¬ ). That case prompted the first case contended in the United States Supreme Court by Mexican American lawyers.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Another instance of minority upheaval is what has now ended up known as the Longoria AffairÃ¢â¬ (Takaki, 388). This was a critical minute in the early phases of the post-World War II social equality deve lopment in the United States. Mrs. Longoria reached out to Dr. Hector Perez Garcia, the author of the American GI Forum. On January 11, 1949, Garcia assembled a conference of the Corpus Christi Forum; he additionally sent numerous telegrams and letters to Texas congressmen (Class Lecture 11/9). The national and global press grabbed the story and even affected U.S. Mexican relations. The Felix Longoria issue turned into an early sample of a binding together occasion in the Mexican American social liberties development (Takaki, 381). The intercession of Dr. Hector GarcÃ a and the American GI Forum in the matter prompted an expanded enthusiasm around the nation in opening nearby sections of the association (Class Lecture, 11/9). Among Mexican Americans and Hispanics the nation over, the episode turned into an encouraging point and an enlisting instrument for the GI Forum that soon had sections over the US. While Brown v. Board of Education is a broadly known point of interest Supreme Court case, few can follow its inceptions to the instance of nine-year-old Sylvia Mendez in Mendez v. Westminster (Takaki, 389). Sylvia s case, which was chosen in the government courts in California, went before Brown by around eight years. Thurgood Marshall spoke to Sylvia Mendez and Linda Brown
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is a private research university with an acceptance rate of 43%. Located in Troy, New York, RPI has a 13-to-1Ã student/faculty ratioÃ and more of an undergraduate focus than many of theÃ top engineering schools. RPI can also boast of an 86%Ã six-year graduation rate. In athletics, RPI has a competitive Division I hockey team. Other popular sports include swimming, basketball, football, soccer, and track and field.Ã Considering applying to RPI? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, RPI had an acceptance rate of 43%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 43 students were admitted, making RPIs admissions process competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 20,402 Percent Admitted 43% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 20% SAT Scores and Requirements RPI requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 72% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 640 720 Math 690 780 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of RPIs admitted students fall within the top 20% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to RPI scored between 640 and 720, while 25% scored below 640 and 25% scored above 720. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 690 and 780, while 25% scored below 690 and 25% scored above 780. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1500 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at RPI. Requirements RPI does not require the SAT writing section for most applicants. Note that RPI participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. At RPI, SAT Subject tests and the SAT (or ACT) writing section are required for applicants to the accelerated programs in law and medicine. ACT Scores and Requirements RPI requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 28% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile Composite 29 33 This admissions data tells us that most of RPIs admitted students fall within the top 9% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to RPI received a composite ACT score between 29 and 33, while 25% scored above 33 and 25% scored below 29. Requirements Note that RPI does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. RPI does not require the ACT writing section for most applicants. Regardless of whether you submit the ACT or SAT, SAT Subject tests and the ACT (or SAT) writing section are required for applicants to the accelerated programs in law and medicine. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA of RPIs incoming freshmen class was 3.91, and 69% of students had GPAs of 3.75 or higher. These results suggest that most successful applicants to RPI have primarily A grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph RPI Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting inÃ with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, which accepts well under half of applicants,Ã has selective admissions. However, RPI uses aÃ holistic admissionsÃ process which is based on much more than numbers. A strongÃ application essayÃ and a glowingÃ letter of recommendationÃ can strengthen your application, as can participation in meaningfulÃ extracurricular activitiesÃ and aÃ rigorous course schedule. Note that applicants to the Accelerated Law, Accelerated Medical, Architecture, Electronic Arts, Games and Simulation Arts and Sciences, and Music programs have additional essay and portfolio requirements. Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their test scores are outside RPIs average range. In the graph above, the blue and green dots represent accepted students. You can see that the majority of admitted students had high school GPAs of A- or higher, combined SAT scores of 1250 or higher, and ACT composite scores of 26 or better. Many applicants had impressive 4.0 GPAs, and, at RPI, strong math scores are particularly important. If You Like RPI, You May Also Like These Schools Rochester Institute of TechnologyMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyWorcester Polytechnic InstituteBoston UniversityCornell UniversitySyracuse UniversityBinghamton UniversityUniversity of RochesterTufts UniversityPennsylvania State UniversityCarnegie Mellon University All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Friday, December 20, 2019
Purpose of the report The vacation industry in British Virgin Island (BVI) is developed into a profitable, but highly competitive market. One of the major players is the West Indies Yacht Club Resort (WIYCR), operates successfully since its inception in late 1980s. However, recently some problems became alarming, seriously affect the operating performance of the resort. Investigation is needed. I, Patrick Dowd, am honor to be the investigator. The purpose of this report is to discuss the problems in the resort, why they exist and the corresponding solutions. Problems in the resort WIYCR is troubled with internal problems that started to affect its normal operation. Expatriate turnover rate is nearly high enough to beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They are more caring, less aggressive, so they donÃ ¡Ã ¦t pay too much effort in working, pursing personal goals. They emphasizes on quality of life and leisure, differs greatly from the USÃ ¡Ã ¦s, which most expatriates come from. In addition, they are not willing to have additional workload by sacrificing time with family and friends. This is because they think working and with family cannot coexist. Therefore, generally they are lack of working motivation. Conclusion Because of the poor organizational structure and lack of understanding of the unique culture characters in BVI society, a lot of problems which I discussed above are created, but they can be solved. Recommendations Generally speaking, my recommendations focus on three main areas: developing effective management; building team spirit; and implementing effective performance evaluation. To build effective management, first we have to incorporate the existing management office in Chicago into the resort office in the site. By doing so, the resort will be more sensitive to the current market situation as the booking office is on the site. It can prevent over or under-booking to happen. Clear working instruction to local staff is also crucial to avoid any misunderstanding. The second area is building team spirit. Specifically, building trust between expatriates and local employee. Firstly, culture orientation courses should beShow MoreRelatedMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words Ã |Ã 702 Pageswhich formal issues and options can be debated for each case. New in some cases are DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Advocate exercises in which students can argue against a proposed course of action to test its merits. A new pedagogical feature, based on a reviewerÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation, appears at the end of the Analysis section: students are asked to make their own analysis, draw their own conclusions, and defend them, thereby having an opportunity to stretch themselves. In some cases where there is considerable updating
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Rather, the movement was fraught with ambiguity over who its leaders would be, how they would go about fighting the institution of slavery, and what the future would be like for black Americans. Some of the persisting goals of antislavery activism were legal emancipation, aid to runaway slaves through vigilance groups and the Underground Railroad, civil rights for freed blacks in the north, and education, suffrage, and economic advancement for African-Americans. Perhaps the most unifying ideal of theÃ anti-slavery movementÃ was that the racial basis forAmerican slaveryÃ could be undermined by promoting Christian values, education and economic progress among free blacks to show that they were capable of succeeding as individuals in an integrated American society. Richard Allen, leader of the A. M. E. church, stated the case for black progress as an answer to the justifications of slaveholders: Ã¢â¬Å"if we are lazy and idol, the enemies of freedom plead it as a cause why we ought not to be free. In addition to the connection between abolition and economic and social progress, most abolitionists worked for the assurance of civil rights and legal protection for free blacks, who lived in an anomalous condition of Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ without citizenship and with constant threat of discrimination, violence, and abduction to be sold into slavery. There were some bitter conflicts over specific strategies. Though Garrison and most blacks favored immediate abolition, many whites continued to prefer or express willingness to settle for gradual emancipation. Violent resistance was at first rejected by many, again under the influence of Garrison, but David WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal that violence should be used against slavery became more popular as blacks and abolitionists searched for an effective means of self-defense against mobs and pursuit of civil rights. Whether or not individuals worked within the political framework of the constitution to effect change again depended on allegiance to Garrison, and in general the early antislavery activists preferred moral arguments while later leaders were more willing to use political means. To what extent black abolitionists cooperated with and trusted white abolitionists varied, for though whites were essential to the movement, blacks often felt they needed to rely on their own raceÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership, and so both black and integrated organizations formed. A few abolitionists supported the proposal of African or Haitian colonization by free blacks, but most viewed the colonization schemes as a way for whites to get rid of the Ã¢â¬Å"black problemÃ¢â¬ in the US rather than a viable alternative to gaining equal rights in the nation of their birth (since only a small minority of blacks in the US after the 1820s were African-born). Furthermore, colonization reinforced the notion that African-Americans would be better off somewhere else because they could never be integrated into American society as whitesÃ¢â¬â¢ equals. Blacks saw similarities between JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Indian removal policy and federal funding for African colonization, and most determined to resist relocation. Settlement in Canada was not similarly viewed as running away from the struggle for equality at home because it not only provided safety, legal protection, and civil equality for black refugees but also harbored the founders of new abolitionist publications who strengthened the antislavery movement in the American North and Midwest. Leaders of the anti-slavery movement were well known for their publications and speeches, and many served the equally important but less public role of organizers or Ã¢â¬Å"conductorsÃ¢â¬ on the Underground Railroad. The assortment of leaders included free blacks, like William Still in Philadelphia, radical whites, like William Lloyd Garrison, former slaves, like Frederick Douglass, and women of both races, such as Sojourner Truth and Harriet Beecher Stowe. GarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-political, non-violent moral opposition to slavery was the largest sect of antislavery agitation for many years, but his unwillingness to work within the political system to reclaim the constitution and his allegiance to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights were controversial positions that caused many, including Douglass, to split with Garrison eventually. Many whites who were identified with the antislavery cause, such as Stowe, did not extend their sympathies for enslaved blacks as far as supporting equal rights for freedmen. Though generally considered radicals, few leaders of the antislavery movement committed large-scale revolutionary or violent acts. Quiet small-scale acts of resistance termed Ã¢â¬Å"the Underground RailroadÃ¢â¬ gave way to more violent public resistance in the 1850s, particularly in Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ centers like Boston, against the recapturing of fugitive slaves who lived as free blacks in the northern states. A later martyr for the cause of abolitionism, John Brown, was one of the few who were brave (or insensible) enough to direct violent action against the federal government with hopes to end slavery through militancy in his raid on HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Ferry in 1859. Blacks and whites who rallied behind the unified cause of abolitionism did not always cooperate fully, sometimes because their goals differed, but often because blacks were wary of whites. As the Hortons summarize, Ã¢â¬Å"white reformers were more likely to accept a gradualist approach to anti-slavery, and blacks sometimes faced discrimination or subtle prejudice in integrated organizationsÃ¢â¬ (Hortons 222). Racism of various forms existed among white antislavery reformers, who often felt that slavery was a moral wrong but nonetheless thought blacks inferior to whites or distasteful to associate with. Harriet Beecher Stowe notes this phenomenon in her creation of the character Miss Ophelia for Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin. Like many white northerners who object to the institution of slavery, Miss Ophelia sees the education and moral improvement of blacks as a Christian duty that whites owe to the race they have long enslaved, but does not see that the Ã¢â¬Å"spiritual equalityÃ¢â¬ of blacks and whites implies social equality and is uncomfortable with physical contact with her black charge. In addition to direct racism, white reformers often harbored a more subtle condescension when they Ã¢â¬Å"credited their work with blacks as broadening their views and stimulating personal growth,Ã¢â¬ as if the movement was more about the moral development of white individuals through their acts of charity than about seeing justice enacted in fulfillment of the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that all men are created equal (Horton 224). Despite these tensions and overwhelming white paternalism, whites Ã¢â¬Å"brought financial power, reformist zeal, and the respectability of heir colorÃ¢â¬ to the movement and were Ã¢â¬Å"instrumental in opening higher education to African Americans on an equal basisÃ¢â¬ which bolstered the educated black leadership of the 1840s and 50s (Horton 236, 215). Many short-lived organizations, some comprised solely of blacks and others integrated, competed to some extent for support, and allied themselves with different causes. There were a few longer-la sting organizations, such as the American Anti-Slavery Society and the National Convention of the People of Color, and publications such as the FreedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Journal and the Colored American, that were highly influential. Discounting one conventionÃ¢â¬â¢s endorsement of the Free Soil Party in 1848, the Liberty Party was the only political party that embraced an antislavery platform. Garrisonian opposition to recognizing the Constitution and working within the existing political system, termed Ã¢â¬Å"union with slaveholders,Ã¢â¬ detracted from potential early antislavery political organization, favoring moral arguments which proved largely ineffective for provoking large-scale change. Between the period of the 1820s through the eve of the civil war, and particularly during the 1850s, the antislavery movement grew in response to political developments and increasing sympathy to abolitionist propaganda. Federal victories for slavery such as the expansion of slavery in the west, the Fugitive slave law of 1850, and the Dred Scott decision of 1857 threatened blacks and white northerners alike as they represented the power of the slaveholding south to influence federal policy. In nine Northern states, where twenty years before towns had passed regulations against integrated schools and where racism persisted to some extent, Personal Liberty Laws passed which essentially nullified the federal Fugitive Slave Law, evincing that statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights to reject complicity with slavery was more widely supported than black equality. Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin, slave narratives, and other popular publications aroused many white northernersÃ¢â¬â¢ sympathies. The alliances forged between antislavery agitation and other political and social reform movements garnered support for the anti-slavery cause among moderates. Over time, as hopes of gradual emancipation and an end to racism soured in light of the political and social realities, many shifted from adherence to Garrisonian apolitical non-violence to a widespread sentiment, especially among blacks, in favor of David WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal for the use of violence in defense and in opposition to slavery. Resistance to enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law included groups rescuing blacks from jails, like the case of Shadrach in Boston in 1852. Whites and blacks alike worked for black suffrage, and the blacks who cast votes in the 1860 presidential election overwhelmingly voted for the Republican candidate Lincoln, a departure from the call for Garrisonian disunion by blacks like Charles Lenox Remond. Blacks in the North formed militias, including BostonÃ¢â¬â¢s Massasoit Guard, without state governmental sanction. On the eve of the Civil War, blacks were ready to engage in a federal struggle for freedom, a new revolution that would grant them the equality promised to all men in the Constitution that was now nearly a century old. The decades leading up to the southÃ¢â¬â¢s secession had taught blacks that patience and diligence in educating themselves and working to acquire land and social status was far from achieving the end of slavery or earning them equal citizenship. White northerners who were not necessarily proponents of black civil rights often supported the antislavery cause in order to counter the seeming growing influence of Southern slave power. Secession lit the fuel of 40 years of antislavery agitation and began a war that some would say was waged for union, but most blacks and many whites insisted that the coming war would be the final struggle for universal freedom.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Expansion of Nevada Ltd in Brazil. Answer: Introduction Business expansion is a very critical decision of any business and is undertaken after considering a lot of different factors. Expanding within the nation is still easy in comparison to expanding in a different nation, of which the company is not aware. This is particularly with regards to the details and the real time problems which can be faced in such different nation (Grnig and Morschett, 2017). So, before setting up a permanent branch in a different nation, the businesses often opt for setting up a temporary base in the target market. And in this context, there are three different options which would be concentrated upon in this discussion, i.e., agent, distributor and joint venture (Schlegelmilch, 2016). This analysis is being conducted for Nevada Ltd (a fictional company), which has a business of making chocolates and is presently located in France. The target market of the company is Brazil, which is located in Central America. The reason for targeting Brazil is that the company can set up base in Brazil in long term for getting the Brazilian chocolates which is gaining demand in international market (Vishnefske, 2017). For this expansion strategy, the three options available before the company have been analysed. Selection of Best Option: Agency The first option available with the company is to go for an agency as a mode of expanding in Brazil. In this regard, they would have to hire an agent in Brazil, or a higher number of agents, who would be selling the products of the company in Brazil. An agent would have to be hired from Brazil, who would work as per the instructions of Nevada Ltd and would work as per the authority given to him. For this work, the agent would be trained by the company and would also be given a commission for the work undertaken (Boundy, 2016). There are different advantages and disadvantages of opting for an agent. The biggest advantage of going for agent as the option is that the ownership of goods remains in the hands of the principal. So, the name of the principal is continued even when the product is sold elsewhere. Also, the principal can train the staff as per their needs and train them accordingly. The agents are paid commission, which does not prove to be a burden on the price of the product (Nguyen, 2007). The principal is also able to control the sale activities and the sales network development can be undertaken by the principal which gives them control over the entire process. Another major advantage of agency is that it helps in saving costs and money for the company as the feasibility of a project can be analysed on the basis of establishing agency in a foreign nation. Lastly, it brings special skill set of the agents and also the knowledge of the local markets (Noonan, 2010). An agent is a person who acts for the principal and on the basis of the authority given by the principal. In this lies the biggest disadvantage of agency, where the principal gets the liability which is raised from the work done by the agent (Morse, 2010). This can even take place when the agent works out of the authority given to him. This happens in cases of apparent authority, or in cases of implied authority. In implied authority, as the name suggests, the agent is implied to have the authority to conduct a particular task to the third party (Cahn and Donald, 2010). In ostensible or apparent authority, the agent apparently holds the requisite authority to undertake a particular task. As a third party cannot know for certain if an agent does not have the requisite authority and is shown to have the relevant authority, the principal is made liable for the acts undertaken by the agents, even when the same are beyond the express authority given to such agents (O'kelley and Thompson, 2017). The agency form is not feasible for Nevada Ltd because the company does not have much knowledge of the markets of Brazil and selecting the best agent is also a critical decision. The agent would not be able to find sources for the company, particularly for the availability of Brazilian chocolates and would also bring high liabilities for the company. Distributor Another option available with the company is to go for a distributor. A distributor is a person who is hired by the individuals and such person purchases the goods from one person and sells it in the name of his own to others. Thus, the brand name of the individuals is lost. The distributor sells the products to his customers and the person from whom he acquires the goods only gets the position of a manufacturer (Mullet, 2017). As was the case with agents, distributors also have a number of advantages and disadvantages. The key advantages of this form are that the acceptance of the product offered by the company can be attained by the consumers without having to keep the name of the company on line. This allows the company to adopt with different products and then bringing forwarded the best product in their own name (Murphy Marketing, 2016). Also, the companies have greater liberty as they do not have to keep an eye on each and every aspect of the sale, as is to be done in case of agent. The distributor can offer different services like after sale services which makes this form more attractive to the consumers. Also, for the acts of distributor, the principal cannot be made liable as they sell the product under their own name, thus making them liable to the general public (Alliance Expert, 2017). However, this form has more disadvantages in comparison to its advantages. The ownership of the products is lost by the manufacturer as the distributor sells the product on their own name. The distributor has to be paid a separate amount which is added to the costs of the product, making it costlier. And in order to keep the price of the product as the same, the company has to absorb this additional cost, thus decreasing their profits (Scotter, 2017). The identity of the company is lost as the products are not sold under their name; and they lose the entire control as they can neither train the employees of the distributor nor can they ask them to act in a particular manner. Most importantly, a distributor often sells different products which are acquired from different parties. This means that the focus of the distributor is always distributed and so, the company loses when the distributor is not focused on their product (Salzano, 2014). This form is also not suitable for Nevada Ltd as adoption of distributor would mean that the company losses out their personality and their name, in addition to the control over the product and its selling process. Joint Venture The last option available before the company is to opt for a joint venture. A joint venture is the union formed between two or more companies or business entities, in order to carry out a particular task, which is time based. In a joint venture, the parties share ownership, risks, and profits/ losses on the basis of the percentage covered under the joint venture agreement. Also, the venture comes to an end upon the completion of the purpose for which it was drawn. So, it allows the skills and resources of certain entities to be clubbed for temporary period and for certain objectives (Killing, 2012). The key advantage of a joint venture form of structure is the wide resource pool. The business entities are able to contribute different skill set between the people. In this regard, the finances, the ability to obtain debt, the goodwill, the people and the numerous other resources are used in a combined manner to attain the objective of the joint venture (Yeniyurt and Carnovale, 2017). This often allows an easy access in new markets, particularly when the case of emerging markets is involved. It also helps in saving costs for the companies as they are able to operate in a new market without having to incur high costs of establishing a permanent based in such new market (Morschett, Schramm-Klein and Zentes, 2011). Joint venture form also has different limitation which often makes this as an unlikely option for expansion of business. The prime one in this regard is the burden on one party of the entire venture. Often it happens that one party is left to contribute the resources and even to run the operations of the joint venture due to the lack of proper commitment of the other party of the joint venture (Campbell and Netzer, 2009). This not only results in disputes being caused but also results in the purpose of the joint venture not being attained. Apart from this, often the joint ventures are coupled with exclusive agreements, which restrict the parties of joint venture from forming new relations, even when the same prove more cost effective and favourable than the present venture (Wolf, 2011). In the case of Nevada Ltd, the best option before the company is to start a joint venture with a company of Brazil. This company should be one which has access to Brazilian chocolates. This would help the company in getting product from Brazil and than making them on their own as per the needs of the clients. So, the contribution of the other company would be in terms of the product and the manufacturer of this raw material would be done by Nevada Ltd. Terms of Joint Venture As joint venture came out as the best possible option for Nevada Ltd, the managing director of the company negotiated with the XYZ Incorporated which has the business of procuring Brazilian chocolates and selling it to others. This joint venture would enable the company in accessing the best product from Brazil and also in establishing a permanent branch in the nation on long term basis. However, before a joint venture agreement is formed, it is crucial to note that certain crucial elements have to be present in this agreement in order for the joint venture to be successful and one which is free from ambiguities and possible disputes as a result of it (Morais, 2014). Some of such key terms which have to be included in the joint venture agreement have been stated here. The first item from which a joint venture agreement begins is the details of the parties, the name of the venture, the registered office, and other basic details, which can help in identification of the joint venture (American Bar, 2017). The purpose for which the venture is being formed has to be clearly stated. The scope of the venture also has to be stated in terms of the activities to be done, the intellectual property or the technology to be used or transferred (American Bar, 2017). The next element is to state the applicablelaw under which the joint venture is being formed, the applicablelaws on the venture, thelaws which have to be applied during the winding up process of the venture and the laws which would apply if a dispute is raised in the venture (American Bar, 2017). The joint venture agreement needs to necessarily have a dispute resolution head which would guide the parties in such situations which a dispute is raised. This term helps in preparing the parties of the venture and in guiding them on the actions to be undertaken in case of a dispute. So, the agreement can provide if the parties have to go for arbitration to resolve their dispute and only after arbitration proves unsuccessful can a claim be made in a particular note. The detailing of the court is necessary to remove ambiguity with regards to where a claim can be filed for resolving a dispute raised under the formed venture (American Bar, 2017). The contributions, the rights, the profit sharing and the other such details have to be properly covered under the joint venture. This would allow each party to know their rights and obligations under the venture (American Bar, 2017). So, for instance in the case of Nevada, the venture would have to clearly provide that XYZ Incorporated would be giving the raw material of Brazilian chocolate, its quality, quantity and time period, to Nevada Ltd which would than transform it as per the needs of its clients. There is a need for the venture to provide what the structure of the board would be, the intervals of meetings of board and other relevant bodies, the governance details and the details of the key personnel of the venture (Saracens Solicitors, 2015). A very important term in any joint venture is the exit strategy and the end of the venture. The agreement has to clearly provide how the joint venture would end, the profit or loss sharing at its end, the manner in which the joint venture would be analysed, evaluated and valued at its end and also the manner in which a party of the venture could exit from the venture before the objective for which the joint venture was formed is concluded (Saracens Solicitors, 2015). The applicable tax regimes on the venture, including both direct and indirect taxation has to be clearly stated, apart from the relevant international taxation as applicable on the joint venture (Saracens Solicitors, 2015). Confidentiality agreement is a key part of joint venture agreements and this has to be included in the agreement being drawn so that none of the joint venture entities go to another party. This also helps the parties in restricting from disclosing the key terms of the venture or of the other entity which they learned from the formation of the joint venture formed herewith (Saracens Solicitors, 2015). The budget of the joint venture also has to form a part of the joint venture agreement to give a clear break-up of the costs of the joint venture and the required finances for undertaking this venture. This also helps in projecting the profits and losses of the joint venture proposed to be undertaken (Saracens Solicitors, 2015). Conclusion The previous parts of this report undertook a discussion on the various options which are available before Nevada Ltd for expanding its business in Brazil. The analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of agent, distributor and joint venture led to the conclusion being formed that as per the needs of the company, the best option for the company is to form a joint venture with a company of Brazil. In this regard, after carrying on the discussion with an entity of Brazil, which procures Brazilian chocolates and sells them, the company should opt for forming a joint venture with this company. This would help Nevada Ltd in making chocolates from the Brazilian chocolates supplied by XYZ Incorporated and also keeping its own image in the international market, which would not be possible in distributor model. The agency model has high liabilities, which again would prove disadvantageous for Nevada. 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